The different areas in engineering are:
Civil Engineering: Here the engineers handle construction work. They are concerned with the planning, research, survey and construction of all kinds of buildings, roads, traffic, transportation systems, irrigation and power plants, water supply and sewage and disposal plants, ports and harbours, oil rigs etc.
Mechanical Engineering: Engineers here are concerned with all types of machinery and all aspects of their mechanism and functioning: the design, development, construction, production, installation and operations of all mechanical systems in industries. They are also responsible for maintenance and repair.
Electrical Engineering: In this area, the engineers\\\’ task comprises the design and development in audio and video communications systems and control equipment for the generation, transmission and distribution of electrical energy and telecommunication.
Chemical Engineering: Chemical engineers design, supervise, install and handle the operation of equipment, plants and works in which materials undergo physical changes. This could cover various fields of chemical technology in mineral based industries, petrochemical plants, synthetic fibres and even petrochemical refining plants
Electronics and Communications Engineering: Engineers in this field design, fabricate, maintain, supervise, and manufacture electronic equipment used in the entertainment media, hospitals, defence, computer industry and communications. They work with devices that use an extremely small amount of power. They work with micro-processors, fiber optics, television, radio and telecommunication.
Production and Industrial Engineering: Engineers working in this field aim at higher productivity by adopting integrated design and efficient planning and operative systems. The work involves design and installation of integrated systems of men and materials, equipment and processes for increasing the productivity of goods. These engineers are concerned with planning, measuring, and controlling all activities within an organization.
Computer Engineering: Computer engineers design the computer and its control systems and also develop software. They are engaged in building state-of-the-art equipment, supercomputers, multimedia machines, graphic terminals, inkjet machines and Pentium based machines.
Computer Engineering graduates can look forward to no less than bright and challenging careers in research, design and development, manufacturing, marketing, management, and other exciting fields. Apart from commercial and government organisations, graduates of the Department are also highly sought after by high technology companies in the following sectors: Communications: wireless products including mobile phones, pagers, etc. Computers: peripherals, embedded systems, information appliances, etc Electronics: for consumers, automotive industry, defence, etc Internet: applications development, Internet communications, etc Multimedia: development for video games, entertainment, education, etc Semiconductors: IC design, wafer fabrication, assembly & test, etc Software : development for engineering, design automation, commerce, etc.
Automobile Engineering: These engineers are concerned with the design, planning, manufacture, upkeep, repair, maintenance and upgradation of vehicles. The engineer designs new models keeping in mind the performance, cost, capacity and durability.
Production and Plant Engineering: Productions and plant engineers design, build and maintain machinery using specialized design software, drawing equipment and hand tools.
Biomedical Engineering: Biomedical engineering is the application of engineering principles and techniques to the medical field.Applications of biomedical engineering are the development and manufacture of biocompatible prostheses, medical devices, diagnostic devices and imaging equipment such as MRIs and EEGs, and pharmaceutical drugs.
Electrical and Electronics Engineering: Electrical engineering is considered to deal with the problems associated with large-scale electrical systems such as power transmission and motor control.They also using electricity to transmit energy whereas electronic engineering deals with the study of small-scale electronic systems including computers and integrated circuits.They using electricity to transmit information.
Industrial Engineering and management: How to make the machines and people work in tandem with each other so that maximum productivity is derived.
Instrumentation and Control Engineering: This engineering stream teaches about design, manufacture and maintenance of instruments and instrument units.
Marine Engineering: Designing, construction and management of ships and other naval vehicles.
The history of marine engineering is both varied and interesting. In general term Marine Engineering is meant for research conducted in oceans and coastal or inland waters connected to the sea. Marine Engineers have complete responsibility of the ship\\\’s engine room. Their responsibilities involve development and designing of the engines related to ships and propulsion system. Ministry of Surface Transport, Government of India, takes care of the training needs and conducts competency exam through the Directorate General of Shipping (DGS). Marine scientists work in a surprising variety of disciplines. Examples include planetology, meteorology, physics, chemistry, geology, physical oceanography, paleontology, and biology. Marine science also includes archaeology, anthropology, sociology, engineering and other studies of human relationships with the sea. Many marine scientists have multiple specialties or work as part of multi disciplinary teams.
Marine scientists are employed by universities and colleges, international organizations, federal and state agencies, private companies, nonprofit laboratories and local governments, or they may be self-employed. Marine scientists draw professional salaries and may be rewarded richly for their work in intangible ways, but they almost never become wealthy by American standards. Salaries depend on each person\\\’s education, experience, and specific discipline. Location, the present supply of scientists, and other factors also affect individual salaries. Examples of marine sciences that presently pay above-average salaries are physical oceanography, marine technology and engineering, and computer modeling.
Aeronautical and Aerospace Engineering: This engineering course deals with the design, creation and operation of machines related to flying planes, missiles, rockets, spacecrafts etc.
Agricultural Engineering: This branch of engineering focuses on the design and operation of tools, implements and machines that are used in the practice of agriculture.
Metallurgical Engineering: This stream of engineering studies deals with metals – basically the research, development and manufacture of new metal alloys for wide applications across industries.
Mining Engineering: This engineering stream deals with mines and minerals. The mining equipment is developed and manufactured by mining engineers.
Textile Engineering: The textile industry is in a period of rapid and revolutionary modernization and automation, increasing the need for engineering graduates with skills in engineering, design, chemistry, management, computers, apparel, marketing/sales, and quality control.
Nuclear Engineering: Encompasses all areas of the research, development, and application of nuclear energy.
Manufacturing Engineering: A Manufacturing Engineer is taught how to manufacture things – be it structures, machinery, electronics, medical devices, automobile parts, textiles and clothing, or household products etc.
Polymer Engineering: Polymers are the most rapidly growing sector of the materials industry.Polymer engineers need to apply the traditional skills such as plant design, process design, thermodynamics, and transport phenomena.
Dairy science and Technology: Production of dairy products, in research and development, quality control as well as in management in the dairy and food sector.Milk as a commonplace beverage and milk products like butter, cream, cheeses (both cottage and yellow) as well as curd (yogurt) have become a part and parcel of daily lifestyle especially for the upper classes. Day in and day out, we come across dozens of advertisements both in print media as well as television commercials, which depict how it takes one glass of milk to produce one slice of cheese. We also see how tons of cheese slices are readily gobbled up by the yuppies, both old and young alike. The demand for milk is tremendous, and is growing every day, not only in the larger cities but also in small towns and rural areas.
In fact dairying plays a dynamic role in India\\\’s agro-based economy. Our country\\\’s dairy industry is one of the fastest expanding in the world.
Mechatronics: Mechatronics is the combination of mechanical engineering, electronic engineering and software engineering.
Computer Science: Study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems.
Architecture: Architecture is the art and science of designing buildings and other physical structures.
Telecommunication: Transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication.
Information Science: Application and usage of knowledge in organizations, and the interaction between people, organizations and information systems.
Ceramic Engineering: involves the production of ceramic products like glass, semi-conductors, engine parts, fibre-optic phone lines, tiles, electric power line insulators etc.
The use of ceramic ware can be for both decorative as well as functional purposes. Ceramic products include table and kitchenware, decorative ware like flower vase, insulators, potters, building materials like tiles, etc. Cement is also considered as one of the ceramic materials. A ceramic technologist is concerned with study, research and development of the ceramic materials, planning and developing processing systems, designing and construction of plants and machinery along with other engineers, planning and implementation of processing methodologies, designs and development of various applications like glass, porcelain, cement, refractors, insulators, composite materials, enamels, cement etc. The ceramic industry in India range from small-scale village based units to large-scale ceramic ware manufacturing units. The ceramic designers may design potteries, various types of kitchen wares, various types of containers for industrial uses, and so on.
Petroleum Engineering: Petroleum engineering explores oil and natural gas reservoirs and decides on the most economic and effective means of oil drilling and recovery.
Biochemical Engineering: is concerned with the research and development of plants for processing biochemicals used for effluent treatment,pest control and drugs.
Environmental Engineering: related to environment and is concerned with processes to conserve and secure the environment.
Robotics Engineering:The International Standard Organisation, defines a robot as an automatically controlled reprogrammable, multipurpose manifestative machine, with or without locomotion, for use in industrial automation applications. Robotics is all about designing robots, maintaining them, developing new applications and conducting research. Robots are built to work repeatedly and accurately even in hazardous environments. They are programmed in a way that enables them to operate automatically. That\\\’s why a robot is called a re-programmable machine. In India, studies related to robot techology and its implications are conducted by the Department of Science and Technology(DST) and Department of Scientific and Industrial Research. The research and development thrust is carried out by DST, Department of Electronics and Department of Ocean Development. IITs, too, have taken the lead in designing programmes in robotics.
As the recent global career trend in robotics suggests, fields so diverse as surgery, modern warfare and nanotechnology have registered a remarkable increase recently in their demand for technical experts and researches in robotics. One of the great ways to learn about robotics is to take part in robotics competitions organised by IITs every year. Students from various engineering colleges and high schools can take part in this technical festival. Surveys conducted by the government and private agencies reveal that the robots enhance the job quality, productivity, product quality, profiatbility for those who work in hazardous environments. Japan has the largest number of robots and only 3 percent of the workforce is unemployed there. The use of robots creates jobs and people who are working manually can be rehabilitated in different areas through training. Even, robots require maintenance, programming and design change. So, if you rehabilitate the displaced workers and train them in handling different aspects of robots, it will lead to increased productivity.
Genetic Engineering: A rather ordinary-looking lamb named Dolly made front pages around the world some time back, because of her startling pedigree: Dolly, unlike any other mammal that has ever lived, is an identical copy of another adult and has no father. She is a clone -a veritable wonder product of genetic engineering!!! A team headed by Ian Wilmut and his colleagues at the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh, Scotland, has provided an important new research tool and has shattered a belief widespread among biologists that cells from adult mammals cannot be persuaded to regenerate a whole animal. Genetic engineering is that wonderful science which enables the human minds to interfere in and modify the processes of life, birth death and even offers escape from certain congenital diseases.
In India, there are several sectors that employ genetic engineers. They are mainly absorbed in medical and pharmaceutical industries, agricultural sectors and the research and development departments of government, semi-government and private sectors. The pharmaceutical industry offers the best opportunities.