The application of science and technology to the treatment, processing, preservation and distribution of foods is termed as Food Technology. The physical, microbiological and chemical makeup of food is studied by the Food Scientists and the Food Technologists. Food Scientists may develop ways to process, preserve, package or store food depending on their area of specialization on the basis of various industry and government specifications and regulations. Most often, consumers does not think about the amount of research and development that resulted in the production of wide array of tasty, nutritious, safe and convenient foods. In some schools, food technology is taught alongside the course content and includes nutrition, food manufacturing process and about how to cook.
Research has been conducted for decades in the field of food technology. Louis Pasteur did research on spoilage of wine, and production of alcohol, vinegar, wines and beer and souring of milk. Moreover, he also developed the process of Pasteurization – the process of heating milk and milk products to prevent food spoilage and destroy disease producing organisms.
Several companies in the food industry have contributed in the development of food technology. These developments have played a great role in the increase in food supply. Some of the developments that took place in the food industry are:
# Instanized milk powder – D.D Pebbles developed the world’s first instant milk powder.
# Freeze Drying – the first and the foremost application of Freeze Drying was applied in Pharmaceutical industry. E.g. Freeze Drying of Coffee.
# High – Temperature Short Time Processing – these processes are characterized by rapid heating and cooling, holding for a short time at a relatively high temperature and filling aseptically into sterile containers.
# Decaffeination of coffee and tea – it was first developed on a commercial basis in Europe around 1900.
# Process optimization – due to food technology, the production of foods is more efficient and the production methods and methodology have become increasingly sophisticated.
FOOD TECHNOLOGY STUDY PROGRAMS
# Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore, India
# IIT Kharagpur, India
# Wageningen University, Netherlands
# Cornell University, USA
# Iowa State University, USA
# Kansas State University, USA
# Michigan State University, USA
# Mississippi State University, USA
# Pennsylvania State University, USA
# University of Leeds, United Kingdom
# University of Massachusetts, USA
# Massey University, New Zealand
# University of Philippines Diliman – College of Home Economics, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines.
# Dept. Food and Agric. Product Tech. Gadjah Mada University, Jogjakarta, Indonesia