There are several areas of specializations for photographers:
Press photographers are also known as photojournalists.
They supply pictures to the national and local press, and must be versatile with an ability to photograph all kinds of subjects. They must have journalistic instincts, know what makes a good news picture, and be able to write accurate captions, work well with reporters, be quick and often work under difficult conditions.
Essentially involves telling a story in pictures and therefore requires knowledge of the subject. Many photographers specialise in the photography of wildlife, sports travel, environment etc.
Commercial (industrial) photography:
Such a photographer takes pictures of merchandise, exteriors and interiors of factories, and machinery both indoors and outdoors to be used for company brochures, annual reports, and in advertising and selling.
Portrait and wedding photographers:
They take pictures of individuals or small groups, handling subjects like pets, children, families, weddings, functions and activities of sports and social clubs.
They are well connected with the photographic departments of advertising agencies, photographic studios. A sizeable section of them happen to be freelancers. Advertising photography is possibly the best-paid and most competitive branch of all; success in this sphere depends entirely on ability, efficiency and the right personality.
This arena has developed in India only recently The bulk of fashion photography is carried out in either Mumbai or Delhi and involves by highly sophisticated and well-equipped studios by freelancers who are commissioned by fashion houses of advertising agencies.